Tag Archives: Egypt

Weekly Gallery Chat Says GoodBye To King Tut’s Tomb

 

” A Pale Green Mermaid Blog “

  

As we bid a fond farewell to King Tut’s tomb let us take a look back at some of the items  not discussed and read a final warning to all who spend their time discovering…

( Look for me in the Yucatan peninsula in about 5 years  – I know there is an undiscovered mayan pyramid yet… to be found…I am dead serious…)

 

 

 

 

 

Egypt Feature Story below  from  www.touregypt.net

Politics and the King Tut Discovery

by Jimmy Dunn

Howard Carter, Pierre Lacau and members of the Egyptian government in front of the tomb of Seti II Politics have always taken an important part in Egyptian archaeology, as they continue to do today. As we gaze upon the wonders of the Tutankhamun treasures, it should come as no big surprise that politics also played a big part in that discovery, becoming in fact the real curse of King Tut’s tomb.

In general, many of the worlds greatest scholars, even today, are not some of the world’s greatest politicians, even though their work often comes under political scrutiny. This can also be said about Howard Carter, so the death of his financier and the more politically savvy Lord Carnarvon on April 5, 1923 could not have come at a worst time. Afterwards, irregardless of how proficient Howard Carter was as an excavator, he proved to be a very poor diplomat at a time when the whole Tut Article from The Times of Londontomb affair had become a very tricky political situation.

The disaster was actually initiated by Lord Carnarvon himself when, on January 9th, 1923, he signed a contract with The Times of London, giving them exclusive rights to the details of the Tutankhamun discovery. It seemed like a good idea at the time, both financially and practically, but in reality it turned out otherwise. First of all, the agreement with The Times was felt to be an affront by not only the news media in Egypt, but the news media throughout the rest of the world as well. One must always keep in mind that this was a time of limited media, before the age of television, radio and the numerous media that so impact our world today. Thereafter, Howard Carter and his team had to suffer what might be called guerilla warfare and general mischief making from the desperate Time’s competitors. One of them, the Daily Mail, even employed one of Carters old rivals, Arthur Weigall, as their special correspondent.

According to Aruther Mace, a member of the Tutankhamun excavation team, in a letter to his wife Winifred:

“…the atmosphere of Luxor is rather nerve-wracking at present. The Winter Palace is a scream. No one talks of anything but the tomb, newspaper men swarm, and you daren’t say a word without looking round everywhere to see if anyone is listening. Some of them are trying to make mischief between Carnarvon and the Department of Antiquities, and all Luxor takes sides on way or the other. Archaeology plus journalism is bad enough, but when you add Politics it becomes a little to much…”

Furthermore, this was a difficult time in Egypt. There was a serious and growing movement for an independent Egyptian state, even though it would take another three decades to achieve. For those involved in the movement, known as Nationalists, the Times agreement provided a big Artical from a competing newspaper of the timesstick with which to beat not only the British “colonialists”, but foreigners in general. It would eventually result in the Tut expedition’s undoing, at least for a while.

After the official “discovery” of the tomb on February 16, 1923, and the revelation that the boy king laid undisturbed within his tomb, there was a growing pressure to make the find public. There was also the legal question of the treasure’s division. If the tomb was classified as “intact”, the Egyptian Government would, under the terms of the concession, be entitled to deny the excavators’ claims to any share of the objects that were recovered.

Indeed, the issue of how best to deal with the discovery created difficulties between Carter and Carnarvon which ultimately resulted in a falling out between the two men. On February 23rd, 1923, Carter went so far as to demand that Carnarvon never enter his house again. Yet, that did not prevent the cloud of doom that fell over the expedition camp following Lord Carnarvon‘s death some months later. Lord Carnarvon had not only been their sponsor, but an influential one as well.

Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon in the tombBetween the first and second excavation season, Carter spend the summer in England, where he managed to persuade Lady Carnarvon to renew the concession under her own name. She readily agreed to this, but she also renewed the Times contract which had been the cause of so much grief the previous season.

By October of 1923, Carter was back in Egypt to begin his second season at the tomb, but thanks to his poor handling of the political situation, even more problems would arise this season. It began when Carter, with a clear aim of circumventing a call from journalists that all or none be present when an announcement on the find was made, decided that Merton, the Time’s correspondent, would no longer be regarded as a journalist but as a member of the excavation team. Hence, the Times would still get the news first.

At the same time, the Egyptian Government, and in particular Pierre Lacau who was now the Director General of the Antiquities Service, had been under increasing pressure to take action over the Times monopoly, especially by the Nationalists who resented considerably the lack of Egyptian involvement in the Tut excavation. At the time, a sound political move would have been for Carter to immediately brief the Egyptian press, which would have probably gone a long way in smoothing over the situation. Yet stubbornly, Carter refused to budge on the matter. It would not take long for the tension between Carter and Lacau to escalate into downright unpleasantness.

Matters finally came to a head following the official lifting of the sarcophagus lid on February 12th, 1924. Carter intended to allow the wives of the expedition members to visit the tomb the following day. However, this was thwarted by the newly appointed Nationalist Minister of Public Works, Morcos Bey Hanna. Hanna was certainly no friend of the English, who had attempted to have him hanged for his political activities some years before, and Carter could see nothing in the Minister’s action except a personal affront to himself, his colleagues and to England. On the other hand, Mace, one of Carter’s principal team members, simply saw it as petty jealousy, “spoiling the dream of every Egyptologist”.

In a letter to his mother, Winifred Mace remarked:

“The whole is a disagreeable business and Carter is such an autocrat that to be thwarted at every turn takes all reason from him.”

Thus, “looking desperately ill and in a fury”, Carter carried out an earlier threat and closed the tomb, leaving the sarcophagus lid hanging precariously by its ropes. He then posted a notice in A pamphlet privately printed by Howard Carterthe lobby of the Winter Palace in Luxor explaining the reason for his actions:

“Owing to the impossible restrictions and discourtesies of the Egyptian Public Works Department and its antiquity service, all my collaborators, as a protest, have refused to work any further upon their scientific investigations in the tomb”.

That was Howard Carter‘s biggest mistake. By closing the tomb, he had played into Lacau’s hands, violating the terms of his concession and allowing Lacau to void the agreement. Afterwards, the Egyptian Government declared that it would finish the work. Legal action on the part of Carter to re-establish the concession came to nothing, and he, fuming with indignation and frustration at having been so completely outmaneuvered, soon left for England and an American lecture tour.

Meanwhile, in Egypt things when from bad to worst, with the discovery of a gessoed wooden head of the boy king packed as if ready to be shipped out of the country. Furthermore, Carter privately published a pamphlet containing “a full statement of the facts which have led us to the present position with the Egyptian government”. One of the appendices removed by Carter from many copies of the booklet contained embarrassing transcripts of Herbert Winlock’s coded telegrams and letters warning Carter of problems. The printing of this ill-judged pamphlet cost Carter the support of many friends and allies.

Were it not for the terrorist murder of the British Sirdar, Sir Lee Stack, on November 19th, Carter might very well have never returned to Egypt. Afterwards, the British tightened their control over Egypt, which included disbanding the Nationalist Government, which allowed Carter to return to his excavation, though now on Egyptian terms.

Howard Carter Working in the Tomb of TutankhamunHe received the new concession, still in Lady Carnarvon’s name, on January 13th, 1925. Under the new agreement, The Times of London would loose its monopoly on the discovery news, and the Carnarvon estate, despite vague promises of one or two duplicates when the tomb had been fully cleared, was required to abandon any formal claim to the king’s treasures. As compensation for the expenses incurred during the excavation, the Carnarvon estate was given the sum of 36,000 pounds sterling in 1930, which marked the end of the Carnarvon financial commitment to the excavation. The final seasons would be financed by the Egyptian government and by Howard Carter himself.

In the end, there was considerable relief when Carter took back the excavation, even by Lacau. It was a monumental task, and as Winlock remarked, “there is no better person to whom this dedicated stuff could have been entrusted”. While Carter may not have been a good politician, he was unquestionably a great excavator, and in truth, it was a job that no one else wanted. Work on clearing the tomb and conserving the objects would continue for  more than seven years, and the study of its contents and preparation for publication would hang as a burden around Carter’s neck for the rest of his life.

 

 

Adieu King Tutankhamun

Leave a comment

Filed under Egypt

Gallery Chat Special / A Walk Through King Tut’s Tomb With Howard Carter / Egyptomania

” A Pale Green Mermaid Blog “

 

In 1923 Howard Carter opened King Tutankhamun’s tomb.  One paper was given the exclusive rights to cover the story. Across the US a fever was created for pictures and stories about the young Egyptian king’s tomb.

Contents bill for The Times advertising the first pictures of the excavation of the tomb of Tutankhamun which were published on January 30, 1923.

The TIMES of London was the sole proprietor of BW photographs, articles and interviews.  Above is a billboard poster announcing the Times  accomplishment.

The silent film industry presented an exotic ideal of egyptian dress in films,

architecture was influenced by the tombs of Egypt particularly the Rosicrucian society,

 

Why this reminds me of my one and only chance (please excuse my old buzzard drinking at rundown bar diatribe) to climb the pyramid, I’m sure I’ve mentioned this before but I still, STILL can’t believe that I chickened out on this one…this one being, there was a trip to Egypt -$500 dollars that’s right and it included  RT airfare hotel breakfast for one week with a quick climb up one of the pyramids that included  a personal guide, idiot ,I WAS AN IDIOT, to pass that up – anyway this story was brought to the surface by the mention of the Rosicrucian society, as to the fact being that, while on a road trip with a friend to California, trying to drive straight out – asap – we ran across, while on one of our many midnight caffeine drenched hurtles no lees than Elvis Presley’s first home, a tiny white house with a white fence, the only thing  spotlighted  in town at midnight, then the next night round the same time we hit, purely by happenstance as we had no plan except speed, a temple of the Rosicrucian society with a SPHINX just about my size, I’m 5’9!/2″, me being me at midnight – stopped the red Toyota stick we were driving and I climbed up and perched myself face to face with The SPHINX!!!  Or at least a replica of it, I can still feel the stone of its hat underneath my fingertips as I waited for this moment to be caught on film… these things happen in the wee hours, anyway,

Egyptomania still exist today as 3,000 year old images make our hearts race and our eyes widen.

 

 

EGYPTOMANIA!!!!!

 Built in 1923

 

All images from Google 

 

Syonara!

Leave a comment

Filed under Egypt

Gallery Chat Special – A Walk Through King Tut’s Tomb With Howard Carter

” A Pale Green Mermaid Blog “

  

When the linens of King Tutankhamun’s  mummy were unwrapped over a hundred amulets were found,

 

Egypt Feature Story

The Treasures of King Tut’s Mummy

by Jimmy Dunn

  

As the wrappings of the mummy were systematically removed, some 150 magnificent items of jewelry, superb amulets and other objects were brought to light. These had been fashioned and positioned according to the dictates of the Book of the Dead, and would ensure that the king’s transformation from death to true immortality. Indeed, they would help make him immortal, at least in the minds of the modern public.

Upper Body artifacts
The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy
The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy
The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy
The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy
The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy
 

Y-shaped amulet
oval plaque
vulture collar
vulture and Uraeus collar
uraeus collar
falcon collar
two falcon collars
apron
dagger
girdle
T-shaped amulet
bracelet
faience broad collar
falcon collar
resin scarab
uraeus from 99
vulture head from 99
falcon collar
circlet
circlet
circlet
vulture bracelet
beads
falcon
collar
two falcon collars
beadwork
circlet
iron dagger
girdle
five finger-rings
falcon collar
bracelet with lapis barrel-bead
bracelet with iron wedjat-eye amulet
bracelet with carnelian barrel-bead
funerary papyrus?
four circlets
djed-pillar amulet
sandals, toe and finger stalls
wire bracelet
beadwork of 61
wedjat-eye bracelet
wedjat-eye bracelet
scarab bracelet
barrel-bead bracelet
scarab bracelet
disc bracelet
amuletic knot
bracelet with carnelian swallow
three finger-rings
barrel-bead bracelet
beaded bracelet
 
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
 
  scarab bracelet
wedjat-eye bracelet
wedjat-eye bracelet
finger-ring
finger-ring
disc bracelet
tail
tyet-knot amulet
wadj-scepter amulet
djed-pillar amulet
double-leaf amulet
serpent amulet
leaf amulet
amuletic knot
uraeus collar
vulture collar
vulture and Uraeus collar
scarab pectoral
vulture pectoral
scarab pectoral
faience wedjat-eye
beads
falcon collar
falcon pectoral
wedjat-eye pectoral
bracelet
Anubis amulet
falcon-headed amulet
serpent-head amulet
Thoth amulet
wadj-scepter amulet
bead
chain
five pectoral clasps and pendants
human-headed winged uraeus amulet
double uraeus amulet
vulture amulet
vulture amulet
vulture amulet
vulture amulet
uraeus amulet
vulture amulet
bead collar
two fibrous fillets
diadem
temple band
linen headdress
uraeus insignia of 104 bis
vulture insignia of 104 bis
temple band
beaded linen skull-cap
conical linen pad
iron headrest amulet
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107

 

Next EGYPTOMANIA caused by the discovery of Tut’s Tomb,

To be continued…

Leave a comment

Filed under Egypt

Gallery Chat Special – A Walk Through King Tut’s Tomb With Howard Carter / Siete

 ” A Pale Green Mermaid Blog “

 

Howard Carter found that he needed to remove many coffins from the burial sarcophagus (the outer coffin) before the mummy wrapped in linens would  appear,

 

First the lid was removed, –

The original design of the outermost coffin’s lid had incorporated four silver handles, two on each side, which were used to lower the lid into place. Some three thousand years later, these same handles would be used, once more to raise this lid, by Howard Carter and his team.

The outer coffin of King tut in its sarcophagus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FROM,

Egypt Feature Story

King Tut’s Coffins

by Jimmy Dunn  www.touregypt.net

Carter tells us that “it was a moment as anxious as exciting”, when he lifted the lid of the outermost coffin. Within, what was expected to be found was indeed found, a second anthropoid coffin.

Once again, the surface was concealed beneath a decayed shroud of linen, which in turn was obscured by floral garlands, and similar to the first coffin, there was a small wreath of olive leaves, blue lotus petals and cornflowers wrapped around the protective deities on the Pharaoh’s brow.

The middle coffin of Tutankhamun being removed from the outer coffin base.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Afterwards, the second coffin was soon revealed as even more magnificent than the first. It measured 2.04 meters long, and was constructed from a still unidentified wood covered as before with an overlay of gold foil. Here, the use of inlays were far more extensive than on the outermost coffin, even though they had suffered considerably from the presence of dampness within the tomb and showed a tendency to fall out. 

It is hard to image the amount of work which must have been put into making this coffin. Carved in wood, it was first overlaid with sheet gold on the thin layer of gesso (a sort of plaster). Then narrow strips of gold, placed on edge, were soldered to the base to from cells in which the small pieces of colored glass, fixed with cement, were laid. The technique is known as Egyptian cloisonne work, but it is not true cloisonne because the glass was already shaped before being put in the cells, and not put in the cells in power form and fused by heating.

  

The fine work of King Tut's second coffin

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

Many details, such as the stripes of the nemes-headcloth, eyebrows, cosmetic lines and beard were inlaid with lapis-blue glass. The uraeus on the forehead was of gilded wood, with a head of blue faience and inlays of red, blue and turquoise glass. The head of Nekhbet, the vulture, was also of gilded wood with a beak of dark block wood which was probably ebony. The eyes were set with obsidian. The crook and flail, held respectively in the left and right hands, were inlaid with lapis-blue and turquoise glass and blue faience, while a broad “falcon collar” containing inset pieces of brilliant red, blue and turquoise glass adorned the king’s throat. There were also two similarly inlaid bracelets carved onto the wrists.

  

Carter removes the shroud from the second coffin of Kink Tut

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Innermost Coffin (no. 255)

The delicate lid of the second coffin was removed in a similar fashion. Eyelets were screwed into the edge of the lid at four points. The silver pins securing the ten inscribed silver tenons were then removed, and the coffin lid, after some initial flexing, was lifted effortlessly into the air. Thus, the third anthropoid coffin was revealed, though covered once again with fine linen in place above the nemes-headdress. It was tightly encased within the second coffin and a shroud of red linen, folded three times, covered it from neck to feet. However, the face of this coffin had been left bare. The breast was adorned with a very delicate, broad collar of blue glass beads and various leaves, flowers, berries and fruits, including pomegranates, which were sewn onto a papyrus backing.

Now this coffin was amazingly different, particularly in one respect, as Howard Carter notes:

“Mr. Burton at once made his photographic records. I then removed the floral collarette and linen coverings. An astounding fact was disclosed. The third coffin…was made of solid gold! The mystery of the enormous weight, which hitherto had puzzled us, was now clear. It explained also why the weight had diminished so slightly after the first coffin, and the lid of the second coffin, had been removed. Its weight was still as much as eight strong men could lift.”

 

The golden inner coffin of King Tutankhamun 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Another view of the innermost gold coffin of king Tut

 

 

Still more  lay in the unwrapped linens of the mummy,

 

To be continued…

 

 

Closeup of the face of the golden inner coffin.

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Look at the way that metal has been worked to look as if it is skin…and the expression of melancholy that the artist captured is pure bliss, artistically speaking…Wow.   PGM    GRRRRRRR technical difficulties!  my last attempt!

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Egypt

What Egyptian Monument Whistles As The Sun Goes Down In The Desert Sky?

” A Pale Green Mermaid Blog “

  

ABU SIMBEL!!!

 

 

 

Watch” Death On The Nile” to see the temple Singing in real time, 

( true or false? on my limited internet search could not find definitive answer… I will need to drop over to Egypt and check it out!) another to do on my ever-growing to do list…

 

Peace

 

Note, from Wikipedia,

Abu Simbel temples (أبو سمبل) are two massive rock temples in Nubia, southern Egypt on the western bank of Lake Nasser about 290 km southwest of Aswan. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the “Nubian Monuments”,[1] which run from Abu Simbel downriver to Philae (near Aswan).

The twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II in the 13th century BC, as a lasting monument to himself and his queen Nefertari, to commemorate his alleged victory at the Battle of Kadesh, and to intimidate his Nubian neighbors. However, the complex was relocated in its entirety in the 1960s, on an artificial hill made from a domed structure, high above the Aswan High Dam reservoir.

Leave a comment

Filed under Egypt

Gallery Chat Special – A Walk Through King Tut’s Tomb With Howard Carter / Seis

” A Pale Green Mermaid Blog “

 

The burial chamber was surrounded by walls filled with images of egyptian life,

 The layout of the full tomb below courtesy of www.eyewitnesstohistory.com ,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Howard Carter wrote,

‘It was, beyond any question, the sepulchral chamber in which we stood, for there, towering above us, was one of the great gilt shrines beneath which kings were laid. So enormous was this structure (17 feet by 11 feet, and 9 feet high, we found afterwards) that it filled within a little the entire area of the chamber, a space of some two feet only separating it from the walls on all four sides, while its roof, with cornice top and torus moulding, reached almost to the ceiling. From top to bottom it was overlaid with gold, and upon its sides there were inlaid panels of brilliant blue faience, in which were represented, repeated over and over, the magic symbols which would ensure its strength and safety. Around the shrine, resting upon the ground, there were a number of funerary emblems, and, at the north end, the seven magic oars the king would need to ferry himself across the waters of the underworld. The walls of the chamber, unlike those of the Antechamber, were decorated with brightly painted scenes and inscriptions, brilliant in their colours, but evidently somewhat hastily executed. “

  

Outside the tomb the press waited,

After opening the first sarcophagus the cleaning and cataloging began,

Inside the sarcophagus lay still more treasures and secrets…

 

To be continued…

 

Note:

www.globalegyptianmuseum.org   Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt 

www.britishmuseum.org  The British Museum, London, England 

www.metmuseum.org    The Metreopolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA

IMAGES from Google

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Egypt

Gallery Chat Special – A Walk Through King Tut’s Tomb With Howard Carter /Cinco

” A Pale Green Mermaid Blog”

 

The second door found in the antechamber lead to the prized burial chamber where Howard Carter hoped King Tutankhamun’s mummy waited for him,

But first they needed to remove and label all the treasures found in the antechamber,

Carter and Callender wrap and pad a life size "guardian figure" in a large wooden stretcher

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Transporting objects to the laboratory for photographs, recording and conservation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Now it was time to open the burial chamber,

With the removal of a very few stones the mystery of the golden wall was solved. We were at the entrance of the actual burial-chamber of the king, and that which barred our way was the side of an immense gilt shrine built to cover

Lord Carnarvon (left) and
Howard Carter break through
to the burial chamber

and protect the sarcophagus. It was visible now from the Antechamber by the light of the standard lamps, and as stone after stone was removed, and its gilded surface came gradually into view, we could, as though by electric current, feel the tingle of excitement which thrilled the spectators behind the barrier…

It was, beyond any question, the sepulchral chamber in which we stood, for there, towering above us, was one of the great gilt shrines beneath which kings were laid. So enormous was this structure (17 feet by 11 feet, and 9 feet high, we found afterwards) that it filled within a little the entire area of the chamber, a space of some two feet only separating it from the walls on all four sides, while its roof, with cornice top and torus moulding, reached almost to the ceiling. From top to bottom it was overlaid with gold, and upon its sides there were inlaid panels of brilliant blue faience, in which were represented, repeated over and over, the magic symbols which would ensure its strength and safety. Around the shrine, resting upon the ground, there were a number of funerary emblems, and, at the north end, the seven magic oars the king would need to ferry himself across the waters of the underworld. The walls of the chamber, unlike those of the Antechamber, were decorated with brightly painted scenes and inscriptions, brilliant in their colours, but evidently somewhat hastily executed. From Eyewitness to History.com

 

 

 Inside the sarcophagus were endless surprises…

 

To be continued…

 

 

Note: From TourEgypt website,

Clearance of the Antechamber was begun on December 27th 1922. It took seven weeks to finish, and used up more than a mile of cotton wadding and 32 bales of calico to secure the objects. Afterwards, and at the end of each successive season, the objects were crated up with extreme care using hundreds of feet of timber, and transported to the Nile river using the human powered Decauville (narrow gauge) railway. Though only a relatively short distance, the train track was A guard at the door of the tomb of Tutankhamun during the off seasonnot permanent and Carter was given only a meager number of rail-lengths that had to be constantly “leapfrogged”, so it took some 15 hours to move the train to the river during the heat of the summer months.

Egypt Feature Story

Excavating the Tomb of Tutankahmun

by Jimmy Dunn

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Egypt